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Glossary of technical terms
    that appear in the LaMPs

Acronyms | Words and definitions

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Lacey Act

This act, enforced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is designed to control environmental releases of injurious fish and wildlife. This law includes species that threaten non-agricultural interests.

Lake Carriers Association

This organization, established in 1880, represents U.S. maritime shipping companies throughout the Great Lakes. Its mission includes safe, efficient shipping procedures; Great Lakes shipping statistics; consultation on ice-breaking issues; harbor and channel dredging; sediment disposal; and environment and commerce regulations and legislation.

Lake effect zone

The area within the tributary where the water of Lake Erie and the river are mixed. This is typically the point at which the tributary reaches lake level. The size of the lake effect zone for every river is different and also varies with rising and falling lake levels.

Lake Michigan

Lake Michigan is the only one of the five Great Lakes wholly within the U.S. border. It is bounded by the states of Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. It is connected with and flows into Lake Huron through the Straits of Mackinac.

Lake Michigan basin

Used to describe Lake Michigan and the surrounding watersheds emptying into the lake.

Lake Michigan Forum

The Lake Michigan Forum provides EPA with public input from stakeholders on the Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP). The stakeholders include industry, environmental groups, sport fishing groups, academia, agriculture, and Native Americans. As the nongovernmental component of the LaMP process, the Forum has established a work plan in an effort to identify and stimulate nongovernmental activities that are consistent with or implement the goals set through in the LaMP process. The Forum work plan covers a variety of issues ranging from specific activities (such as developing pollution prevention and watershed initiatives) to broader ideas like pressing for commitment to the LaMP process and improving education and outreach efforts.

Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMB)

This mass balance research project begun in 1994 is part of the Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan and is designed to develop a sound, scientific base of information that will guide future toxic pollutant load reduction and prevention activities. Also see "Great Lakes Toxic Reduction Effort," "Lakewide Management Plan," "Clean Air Act," and "Clean Water Act."

Lake Michigan Monitoring Coordinating Council (LMMCC)

The Council provides a forum for identifying gaps and establishing monitoring priorities, exchanging information, and forming partnerships. It responds to the need for enhanced coordination, communication, and data management among the many agencies and organizations that conduct or benefit from environmental monitoring efforts in the basin.

Lake Superior

At the head of the Great Lakes system, Superior is the world’s largest freshwater lake by surface area and long considered the cleanest and most pristine of the Great Lakes. Industrial activity, shipping, and atmospheric inputs of persistent and bioaccumulative toxic substances have raised concerns about the lake's water quality.

Lake Superior basin

Used to describe Lake Superior and the surrounding watersheds emptying into the lake.

Lake Superior Binational Program

This international program consists of a cross-section of basin stakeholders, including representatives from environmental and native groups, industries, and municipalities in the Lake Superior basin. It provides citizen input into the Binational Program concerning reductions in the use and discharge of toxic substances into the basin. The Forum identifies barriers to reductions in pollutant use and proposes alternatives for overcoming those barriers.

Lake Superior Biosphere Reserve

An international undertaking that would identify portions of the lake for special protection or study. Proposals to create a binational Lake Superior Biosphere Reserve as part of the United Nations Man and the Biosphere program are under review by the United States and Canada.

Lake Superior Center

An education/exhibition facility on freshwater systems and Lake Superior, located in Duluth, Minnesota. Home of Superior Lakewatch.

Lake Superior Partnership

A partnership between the state of Minnesota and the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District in Duluth that conducts multi-media inspections to insure compliance and identify pollution prevention opportunities for dischargers.

Lake Superior Pollution Prevention Strategy (P2)

A federal/state action plan consisting of recommendations for achieving the goal of eliminating pollution at its source and evaluating recycling, treatment, and disposal options where source reduction is not possible. The focus of the Pollution Prevention Strategy is the nine critical pollutants identified by the Zero Discharge Demonstration Program. Commonly called the P2 strategy.

Lake Superior Pollution Prevention Team

An organization that developed the Lake Superior Pollution Prevention Strategy. The team is made up of regulatory staff from Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO).

Lake Superior Project

An EPA-administered program that establishes a strategy and implementation plan for pollution prevention technical assistance for small and medium-sized businesses in the Lake Superior basin.

Lake Superior Research Institute (LSRI)

A University of Wisconsin-Superior center that conducts research and education specifically on Lake Superior. Originally called the Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies.

Lake Superior Task Force

An international organization made up of the senior managers who developed the Binational Program to Restore and Protect Lake Superior and who continue to provide direction to the Superior workgroup of the Binational Program.

Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP)

The binational programs called LaMPs provide a process for coordinating and prioritizing activities designed to reduce loadings of critical pollutants. The emphasis is on identifying the major sources of these pollutants and concentrating regulatory efforts where they will have the most impact. LaMPs are being developed for each of the Great Lakes.

LaMP Technical Coordinating Committee (TCC)

The TCC develops documents and programs, and recommends strategies, goals, and objectives. The current membership includes the same agencies/entities as the Management Committee, plus the Oneida Tribe of Wisconsin. There is a steering committee and six subcommittees under the TCC.

Large Lakes Observatory (LLO)

This University of Minnesota organization established in 1994 supports and performs research on large lakes of the world, including Lake Superior. It was formerly called the Institute for Lake Superior Research. Also see "University of Minnesota."


The contaminated liquid resulting from water seeping through a landfill or other materials. Chemicals such as fertilizer are leached from the soil when rainwater travels through the soil.


A heavy metal that may be hazardous to health if breathed or swallowed. Lead can bioaccumulate in fish and wildlife.

Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources (LCMR)

The LCMR recommends funding for natural resource programs to be financed by the Minnesota Future Resources Fund, the Minnesota Environment And Natural Resources Trust Fund, and Federal Oil Overcharge Funds. Funds have been used for a number of projects related to Lake Superior, such as public boat access improvement.

Leptodiaptomus sicilis

Type of copepod.

Lethal Concentration 50% (LC50)

A statistically or graphically estimated concentration that is expected to be lethal to 50% of a group of organisms under specified conditions.

Lethal Dose 50% (LD50)

A statistically or graphically estimated dose that is expected to be lethal to 50% of a group of organisms under specified conditions.

Levels Reference Study

A report that suggested methods to alleviate the adverse consequences of fluctuating water levels in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River System. The Levels Reference Study Board, appointed by the International Joint Commission, completed the report in 1993 after an intensive public involvement process in the U.S. and Canada.

Limited Resource Value Waters

Surface waters in Minnesota which are of limited value as a water resource and where water quantities are intermittent. These waters are protected to allow secondary body contact use, to preserve the ground water for use as a drinkable water supply, and to protect aesthetic qualities of the water.

Limnocalanus macrurus

Large calanoid native to the Great Lakes that has declined due to smelt.


The scientific study of freshwater, especially the history, geology, biology, physics, and chemistry of lakes.


Relating to or existing on a shore.

Load, Loadings

An amount of water, sediment, nutrients, pollutants, heat, etc. that is introduced into a receiving water. Loading may be either of anthropogenic origin (pollutant loading) or natural (natural background loading). The amount of pollutants being discharged or deposited into the lake.

Load Allocation (LA)

The portion of a receiving water’s load capacity that is attributed either to nonpoint sources of pollution or to natural background sources. Load allocations are best estimates depending on the availability of data and prediction techniques. Wherever possible, natural and nonpoint source loads are distinguished.

Load Capacity

The greatest amount of load that a water body can receive without violating water quality standards.

Local Governmental Unit (LGU)

A county board, joint county board, watershed management organization, watershed district or a township, or city.

Lowest Observable Effect Concentration (LOEC)

For toxic substances, it is the lowest tested concentration at which adverse effects are observed in aquatic organisms at a specific time of observation.

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