Lake by lake
Resources and references
About the Great Lakes LaMPs study...
Glossary of terms
Other health issues
in the Great Lakes
Apart from the major Great Lakes health concerns of drinking water, recreational water, and fish consumption, there are a number of related issues that are interconnected to air and water quality, pollution and contamination, agriculture and industry, and wildlife.
Air quality |
Bacterial infection and beach closings |
Evidence from toxicologic and epidemiologic studies suggests a link between by-products of the chlorination process and increased risk of some cancers (e.g., bladder and colon) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g., miscarriage, birth defects and low birth weight).
The amount of chlorination required and resulting levels of chlorination disinfection by-products are dependent upon the quality of the raw water, including microbiological quality and organic content. In the U.S., the EPA is developing standards to address the issue of disinfectants and disinfection by-products.
Last modified: April 29, 2003