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E-M:/ Sources of fine particulate matter at two sites in Detroit

persons engaged in the discussions about increasing the number of coal-fired electricity plants in michigan may be interested in an article in the journal "atmospheric environment" . . .
approximately 60 percent of the PM2.5 mass in the detroit area (one of the main triggers for asthma among children) comes from coal combustion sources . . .
Atmospheric Environment
Volume 42, Issue 4, February 2008, Pages 720-732
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.065    How to Cite or Link Using DOI (Opens New Window)  
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Sources of ambient fine particulate matter at two community sites in Detroit, Michigan

Davyda M. Hammonda, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, J. Timothy Dvoncha, Gerald J. Keelera, b, Edith A. Parkerc, Ali S. Kamala, James A. Barresa, Fuyuen Y. Yipa, d and Wilma Brakefield-Caldwelle
aDepartment of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
bDepartment of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
cDepartment of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
dNational Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
eCommunity Action Against Asthma, Detroit, MI, USA
Received 28 June 2007;  revised 26 September 2007;  accepted 28 September 2007.  Available online 5 October 2007.


Detroit, Michigan is a non-attainment area of the annual PM2.5 (particles less-than-or-equals, slant2.5 μm in diameter) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and contains a host of local pollution contributors including high diesel traffic from a nearby international border crossing. A source apportionment analysis was conducted using PM2.5 data collected from 1999 to 2002 by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) project in Detroit, Michigan. CAAA used a community-based participatory research approach to identify and address the environmental triggers for asthma among children residing in southwest and east Detroit. The data used for the study included 24-h measurements of PM2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, and a suite of trace element species, along with hourly measurements of PM2.5 mass and black carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) was used to quantitatively apportion the sources of ambient PM2.5 at each of two Detroit community sites. Results showed that southwest Detroit PM2.5 levels can be apportioned to seven source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, refinery/oil combustion, iron–steel manufacturing/waste incineration, automotive electroplating, and sewage sludge incineration that includes crustal material from runoff. The PMF2 model apportioned the east Detroit PM2.5 data into five source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, motor vehicles/combustion, refinery/oil combustion, iron–steel manufacturing/waste incineration, and automotive electroplating. For both locations, approximately over 60% of the PM2.5 mass was attributed to secondary sulfate/coal combustion sources, approximately 30% to vehicular sources, and 1–5% to local industrial sources. The unexplained mass accounted for <2% of the measured PM2.5 mass. This study illustrates that regional secondary sulfate/coal combustion and local motor vehicle emissions alone are enough for this mid-western US city to be in non-attainment for the annual PM2.5 NAAQS.

Keywords: Receptor modeling; Positive matrix factorization; PM2.5; Trace elements