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Kraft Pulp Mills wastewater issues....



As a newcomer to aquatic toxicity issues in relation to 
wastewater discharge permits for the bleached kraft pulp
mill industry, I am looking for a quick education and easily 
available internet resources on this issue, as well as 
key papers/monographs on bleached kraft mill effluent
aquatic toxicity issues.

I'm interested in, with respect to bleach kraft pulp mills, 
the following issues:

general aquatic toxicity information in freshwater
river systems associated with bleach kraft
mill discharges of...

.....sodium
.....chlorides
.....chlorates
.....sulfates
.....sulfides
.....total dissolved solids
.....suspended solids from bleaching and pulping processes
.....chlorinated organic compounds other than those regulated
     by EPA's new cluster rule (i.e.  chlorinated furanones (MX), chlorinated
     abiatic acids and chlorinated resin acids.

The facility I'm dealing with has no proposed effluent limitations
for sodium, chlorides, chlorates, sulfates and sulfides which are 
known to occur in bleached kraft pulp mill effluents.   There is no effluent 
limitation for total dissolved solids.   What kinds of aquatic toxicity
do these conventional pollutants cause small river systems?

The river downstream shows signs of excessive deposition of 
mill sediments, and I've heard that some of these have the potential
for aquatic toxicity from delayed release of toxic chlorinated organic
compounds as a result of action by dechlorinating bacteria on 
non-absorbable chlorinated long chain lignin-related materials.  Any 
more information on this would be appreciated.

The river in question is supposed to be protected for warm water fisheries,
but in reality only supports carp and other rough fish downstream of the 
facility in question.

Also, a quick explanation on how a CBOD5 is distringuished from a 
BOD5 would be helpful.

Any help/leads/resources on any of the above would very much be 
appreciated.  I'm working on a tight deadline and must submit
detailed comments in a regulatory proceeding in two weeks.  Thanks
for any assistance any on the list may be able to provide.

Regards, 

Alex Sagady

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Environmental Consulting and Database Systems
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