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(Left out the abstracts earlier)
From: EADC Lab [SMTP:EADC@isenov.ise.ufl.edu]
Sent: Friday, March 06, 1998 12:28 PM
Subject: Scaling in cooling towers
I am dealing with a bottling co. that has a cooling tower. The
cooling tower has problems with scaling. I was curious to know
type of descaling chemicals are available. Currently, the
uses a bromide chemical to clean any impurities.
This company also blow molds their own bottles. The blow molded
bottles are made of Polyethylene Terephalate. There are many
defective bottles in this process, how can this be prevented.
ideas would help. Please contact me by E-mail at
Padma@grove.ufl.edu. Thank you.
Industrial Assessment Center
University of Florida
Here are 28 abstracts of articles I can send you. Let me know. If I
recall one or more deal with treating the water with ozone which is very
1. Rec# 70. Bartz, John A. "New Developments in Cooling Towers." Power
Engineering (June 1994): 23-25.
2. Rec# 150. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Unite States
Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station - Project Summary, Dan Bowman, and
Jan DeWaters. 7 pages. Cincinnati, OH: US EPA National Risk Management
Research Laboratory, September 1995. EPA/600/SR-95/135.
This report summarizes a project at the U.S. Navy Naval Base Norfolk,
Naval Air Station that evaluated techniques and technologies for
reducing waste generation from cooling tower operations.
Pollution prevention/Waste reduction/Cooling towers/Water
3. Rec# 150. Burger, Robert. "Points to Consider When Specifying a
Cooling Tower." Plant Engineering 45, no. 3 (7 February 1991): 76-79.
4. Rec# 18515. Electrostatic Water Treater Cooling Tower Applications
Manual, Electrostatic Equipment Company. 10 pages. Kansas City,
Missouri: Electrostatic Equipment Company, 1972.
9900/Electrostatic water treater/Cooling towers/Applications.
5. Rec# 90. Elovitz, Kenneth M. "Can Your Plant Benefit From Free
Cooling?" Plant Engineering 48, no. 5 (April 1994): 76-78.
6. Rec# 15190. Elvrum, Don S. The Electronic Water Treater - How it
Works, Kansas City, MO: Electrostatic Equipment Company, 1970.
Electrostatic force fields can be used to remove and prevent scaling in
a variety of different systems where water is in contact with metal.
These articles describe how the system works and gives examples for
cooling towers, bolilers, consensers, and other equipment.
9999/Water Treatment/Scaling/Cooling Tower/Electrostatic Treatment/Scale
and Corrosion Control/Condensers/Heat Exchangers/ Wells/Boilers.
7. Rec# 60. Federal Technology Alerts - Ozone Treatment for Cooling
Towers - New Energy and Water Saving Technology to Reduce Cooling Tower
Operting Costs, 26 pages. , August 1996.
This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) provides detailed information and
procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most cooling
tower ozone treatment applications.
8. Rec# 120. Gates, Jay, and Jesse Beecher. "Changing the Plant Cooling
Water Treatment Program." Plant Engineering (8 August 1991): 55-57.
9. Rec# 160. Guyer, Eric C., and John A. Bartz. "Dry Cooling Moves into
the Mainstream." Power Engineering (August 1991): 29- 32.
10. Rec# 11775. Lester Laboratories Cooling Towers. Potential for
Reduction of Gaseous Chlorine, , 4 December 1990. Patent 4,975, 109.
11. Rec# 100. Eliminating Hexavalent Chromium From Cooling Towers - Fact
Sheet, Los Angeles Hazardous & Toxic Materials Office. 8 pages. Los
Angeles, CA: City of Los Angeles Board of Public Works.
3400/3500/Hexavalent chromium/Cooling towers/Water treatment/
12. Rec# 180. MacCarthy, Steven. "Cooling Tower Microorganisms
Controlled by Ultraviolet contact." Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning
Discusses how UV contact controls slime producing bacteria and algae and
reduces the use of chemical microbiocides in cooling towers.
13. Rec# 10060. Minnesota Technical Assistance Program. Reducing Water
Usage with Cooling Towers, Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Technical
14. Rec# 840. NC Office of Waste Reduction. "Automatic Controllers
Monitor Biocidal Chemical Additions to Cooling Towers to Prevent Excess
Concentrations in Wastewater." Case Summaries of Waste Reduction by
Industries in the Southeast, Gary Hunt et al. 1 pages. Raleigh, NC:
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse, July 1989.
Contact: NC Office of Waste Reduction, PO Box 27687, Raleigh, NC
This case study discusses how an automatic bleed/feed system controls
chemical additions to cooling tower water. This prevents excess
biocidal chemicals from bleeding into either wastewater treatment plants
or surface waters. A biodegradable material was also substituted for a
more hazardous biocidal compound.
2823/Chemical controllers/Cooling towers/Treatment/Biocides/ Hazardous
wastes/Waste reduction/Material substitution/ Wastewater.
15. Rec# 15370. Pollution Prevention Tips - Water and Chemicals
Reduction for Cooling Towers, NC Pollution Prevention Program. Raleigh,
NC: NC Pollution Prevention Program, DEHNR, May 1987.
2800/Chemicals/Water/Cooling towers/Waste reduction/Pollution
16. Rec# 140. Ogando, Joseph. "It's Time to Get Wise to Cooling- Water
Treatment." Plastics Technology (October 1993): 54-56.
17. Rec# 820. Ozonation of Cooling Tower Water - A Case Study, Stephen
Osgood. 33 pages. Oakland, CA: East Bay Municipal Utility District, June
Discusses how a hospital charged from multiple chemical treatments of
cooling tower water to an ozone gas system.
Water conservation/Water efficiency.
18. Rec# 5550. Petrey, Ernest Q. ,. Jr. "The Role of Cooling Towers in
Achieving Zero Discharge." Industrial Water Engineering 11, no. 1
(January 1974): 29-31.
19. Rec# 160. Powell, Peter. "A Big Time Chiller Changeover."
Refrigeration Service & Contracting (June 1993): 18,20,22.
This article is a case study of a major changeover of aging air cooling
equipment at Hudson's Bay Company facilities, and some of the factors
that were considered.
9999/Cooling tower/HFC-134a/Air conditioning/CFCs/Refrigerants/
20. Rec# 18505. Applications of Electrostatic Processes for the Control
of Scale, Corrosion and Biologics in Cooling Towers, Robert S. Reimers
et al. 19 pages.
21. Rec# 80. Rittenhouse, R. C. "Salt Water Cooling Tower Retrofit
Experience." Power Engineering (June 1994): 26-29.
22. Rec# 270. Ronningen-Petter Filters for Water Reuse, Ronningen-Petter
Engineered Filter Systems. 15 pages. Portage, Michigan: Ronningen-Petter
Engineered Filter Systems.
This paper provides vendor information on the applications for this
company's filters. The use of filters in heat exchangers, cooling
towers, boiler systems, rain water intake, and side stream filtration is
23. Rec# 110. "Self-Cleaning Filters Help Keep Cooling Tower Free of
Corrosion, Scale Buildup." Plant Engineering (5 September 1991): 107.
24. Rec# 11965. Ultraviolet Light Disinfection of Water in a Textile Air
Washer (aka Evaluation of a Teflon Based Ultraviolet Light System on the
Disinfection of Water in a Textile Air Washer), J. Edward Smith II, and
Ralph B. Whisnant. 32 pages. Raleigh, NC: DEHNR, NC Pollution Prevention
Program, 1 August 1987.
This report examines the feasibility of disinfection with ultraviolet
light for air washers and cooling towers. UV disinfection reduces
operation and maintenance costs, does not create the discharge of toxic
chemicals, and the UV unit needs no extensive maintenance to operate
2200/Textiles/Ultraviolet/Air washers/Teflon/Disinfection/Water/ Wet
processing/Waste audit/Biocides/Cooling towers/Material substitution.
25. Rec# 330. Taylor, Terrell T. "The Electrolytic Process for Chromate
Removal in Cooling Towers." CEP - Chemical Engineering Progress (June
26. Rec# 3175. U.S. EPA. Pretreatment and Ozonation of Cooling Tower
Water, 36 pages. : NTIS, 2 April 1983. PB84-192053.
This is a microfiche document.
27. Rec# 130. Willa, James L. "Cooling Tower Materials Disposal." Plant
Services (August 1993): 51-52.
28. Rec# 280. Non-Chromate Corrosion Inhibitors for Cooling Towers,
Wright Chemical Corporation. 2 pages. Document No.: 000- 000-A-000.
Citation: "Non-Chromate Corrosion Inhibitors", A. Von Koeppen/// /,
Industrial Waste Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3, April/May 1972: pp. 25-29.
Chemical maker eliminates chromate and phosphate from wastewater by
changing to non-chromate corrosion inhibitors.
2800/3500/3200/Hazardous waste reduction/Chromate/Phosphate/ Corrosion
Waste Reduction Resource Center
P.O. Box 29569, Raleigh, NC USA
Tel 1-800-476-8686, FAX 919-715-1612