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Re: Site Visits

I agree with Mike Heaney, providing added information on the benefits of P2
will help reduce the perceived risk of undertaking P2.  I also agree with
Sue Sommerfelt that creating economic incentives to apply P2 will help
increase the implementation rate of P2 suggestions (whether they are
generated under the "a" method or the "b" method).

Tradable permits show definite promise in certain arenas.  There are other
economic incentives or tools that technical assistance programs may be able
to use to increase implementation.  Providing funding for or reducing costs
of implementation and creation of local labeling programs are two ideas
that I believe are especially helpful when working small to medium-sized

Small to medium-sized businesses are usually privately-held.  Implementing
major P2 projects can mean the owner(s) experiences a cut in "pay"
currently for an uncertain future return (this is true of all businesses
and all risks, but may be especially relevant for the small business
owner).  Education about the benefits may help, but providing a smoother
cash flow pattern may also help.  I realize there are a variety of
different funding programs out there, but I would like to point to one very
successful program from a related field.

The Montana Extension Forestry currently runs a program called the Forest
Stewardship Program.  The program is designed to encourage small woodlot
owners to develop and implement management plans for their properties
(hopefully using ecosystem management concepts and sustainable forestry
methods).  Participants in the program pay a small fee to take a two week
course on how to survey their property and develop a management plan. 
Those participants who complete a management plan can then request a
reviewer to
assess the site and the plan.  If the plan meets the programs
specifications, the owner is eligible to apply for loan and grant funds to
implement projects which will improve the health of the site.  Projects
which may qualify for funding include selective cutting to create a
healthier stand, afforestation and restoration of riparian areas.  I
believe their implementation rates are relatively high. However, it is a
program so participants are predisposed to implementation.  It seems like a
similar model has the potential to increase the implementation of P2
technical assistance.  This example uses the "b" method of assessment by
training the participants to do their own surveying and planning.  But goes
a step further by providing relief from the front end costs of
implementation to those who develop acceptable plans.  

If your jurisdiction can't afford to provide loan or grant funds, you can
look for ways to reduce regulatory cost for those who meet certain
requirements.  This concept is sometimes referred to a green permitting. 
If a company meets certain requirements like having an environmental
management system and a P2 implementation plan (as well as being in
compliance with regulations), monitoring frequency diminishes or monitoring
changes in some way that reduces costs.  Last I heard (about a year and a
half ago), the Oregon DEQ was researching the possibility of using green
permitting to encourage P2.

The second economic incentive is to reach out to the final consumer of the
products and encourage the market to "pull" P2 into businesses.  The
requirement of certain government agencies that contractors be ISO 9000
certified is one example of the customer pulling initiatives into business.
 A case I studied in a course a few years ago is a smaller scale example. 
It dealt with P2 implementation in auto repair shops in Santa Rosa, CA. 
Some of you out their may have more current information about this case
than I do as the case was written in the mid 90s.  The authors were W. John
Garn, an environmental management consultant, and Martin L. Grimsrud,
Industrial Waste Inspector for the City of Santa Rosa.  I do not know if it
was ever published.  The case described implementation of a green
labeling/sticker program for the auto shops in the City of Santa Rosa. 
Once consumers in Santa Rosa became familiar with the sticker used to
indicate a green shop, they put market pressure on shops to obtain the
sticker.  In this case, the
sticker was awarded to shops who were in compliance with all regulations
and permits.  However, you could make the bar higher and require a P2
implementation plan and certain goal attainment.  This type of incentive
might work for a variety of small businesses such as dry cleaners, auto
shops, car washes, construction companies, etc.  Does anyone know how
the Santa Rosa program is doing or if any other jurisdictions are trying
similar programs?

Susan Anderson
Balance Technologies
534 Fairview Ave.
Missoula, MT  59801