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Re: P2 and pesticides/vector control (for health departments)



Hello Bruce:

Got a few links and information for your viewiing pressure.

http://www.mosquito.org/
       American Mosquito Control Association
                   2200 East Prien Lake Rd
                    Lake Charles, LA 70601
                   Telephone: (318) 474-2723
                     FAX: (318) 478-9434
                  E-mail: amcaintl@deltech.net

http://www.pesp.org/pesp/background.htm
[Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program]

http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/
[Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division]

http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/hyg-fact/2000/2098.html
[Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: Brownbanded Cockroach]

http://www.symbios-witticism-page.com/bug.htm#6
[Symbio's Non-Toxic Pest Management Index]

http://wfm.www.wholefoods.com/wfm/healthinfo/pestfreehome.html
[A Pest-Free Home ----->]

     The King's palace was overrun with mice, so one day he summoned his advisors and
     asked what could be done to rid his castle of them. The advisors all agreed that cats
     were the answer. Cats? What a simple solution! In came the cats, and the King
     made them welcome. All the mice fled in terror, and the King was pleased. The cats
     were also pleased, and invited all their friends to join them and take advantage of the
     King's hospitality. Soon the kingdom was so full of cats that there was no room for
     anyone or anything else. The advisors were called to a second meeting, where the
     King pleaded for a solution to his catastrophe. And what was the answer? Dogs, of
     course! Well, you remember how the story goes. The dogs got rid of the cats, but
     soon became a worse nuisance. So the King's advisors called in tigers to chase off
     the dogs, and then brought in elephants to scare off the tigers. Of course, elephants
     in the castle made daily life somewhat difficult. In the end, the only solution was to
     welcome the return of the mice, because everyone knows elephants are afraid of
     mice. 


                    There are at least two valuable lessons to be learned from this
                    tale: nature maintains her own balance, and to try and completely
                    eradicate any one element from that fine balance will bring the
                    whole thing down on top of us. That's been a hard lesson for us.
                    Since the end of World War II, the United States has been
                    producing ever growing amounts of pesticides in an effort to shift
                    the balance of nature in our favor. But the act of poisoning our
                    environment has come full circle, and it is becoming clear that we
                    are poisoning ourselves as well. It is estimated that 45,000
                    humans suffer acute poisoning each year due to pesticides. 3000
                    of these are serious enough to require hospitalization, and the
                    specter of future loss from cancer has yet to be fully revealed.
                    Better options exist, however. Some are old as the hills, and their
                    safety and effectiveness have withstood the tests of time. Others
                    are the latest results of science and technology, targeted for
                    specific pests and ineffective on other insect populations. Careful
                    use of these combined with basic cleanliness can keep pests from
                    becoming a nuisance. 



General Control


     Pests usually come into your house for one of two reasons: food or water. The first
     step towards controlling them is to remove any inviting source of these and prevent
     future access every way you can. If you have leaky faucets, they will need to be
     repaired. Patch any holes in the door and window screens, and consider screening in
     stove vents and other passages from the outside. Install weather stripping in gaps
     around doors and windows, and seal all other cracks with paint or caulking. 

     In the kitchen, store food items in jars with rubber seals in the lids, or in plastic
     containers with a tight pressure seal, as cardboard is neither roach proof nor ant
     proof. Put all food scraps away, keep the floors swept, the counters clean, and rinse
     food from all containers before throwing them in the recycling bin or the trash can.
     Consider separating organic waste into a plastic 5 gallon bucket with a lid. 

     If you have pets, place their food bowls in dishes of soapy water. The soap breaks
     the surface tension of the water, so any insects trying to cross will sink. Outside,
     keeping organic debris away from the walls of the house will minimize nesting
     nearby. 

     If you find that you are still having trouble, the following guidelines are pest specific,
     and are arranged by degree of toxicity. The least toxic methods are discussed first,
     followed by other options in order of toxicity. Please read all labels and instructions
     carefully, and use any pesticide, even natural ones, in moderation so as to prolong
     the effectiveness of the product. Overexposure to any poison will result in the
     eventual immunity of the targeted species. 



Roaches


     Once all of the above precautions have been taken to exclude roaches from the
     house, extermination of existing populations within the home need to be addressed.
     Non--toxic methods exist in the form of roach "motels", which are small traps
     containing a food attractant and a powerful glue. Roaches are lured in to feed and
     become entangled in the glue. Traps are also available that contain a poisoned bait. If
     you want to purchase one of these, look for one containing boric acid as the active
     ingredient. Boric acid has been in use for years in dual capacity as both an antiseptic
     and as a means of controlling roaches. As a pest control product, it serves as the
     least toxic poison available, yet is also the most effective. It is available in a powder
     form for application into cracks and under large appliances; a single application will
     last for months or even years if kept dry. You may find that boric acid is a little slow
     to act (it can take from 7 to 14 days to kill), but tests by everyone from the Rodale
     Institute to the U.S. Army have shown it to be the most effective and economical
     approach to roach control. The chief reason for its success is that roaches are not
     repelled by it. Most poisons can be detected by roaches and are subsequently
     avoided. Boric acid goes unnoticed, however, and is picked up in trace amounts on
     the fine leg hairs, then ingested during grooming. It only needs to be replaced when it
     begins to cake or is crusted over. If the area is mopped frequently, a small amount
     can be included in the mop water. Although generally considered mild, boric acid is
     still a poison, and can be toxic to pets and small children. Apply it carefully, and only
     in out of the way places. Small, hand--held dusters made specifically for blowing
     insecticidal dusts can be used for application. Sweep up any visible residues, leaving
     only a fine coat of dust. 

     Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are also available for the control of roaches. Their
     effectiveness is so limited by the migratory habits of roaches, however, and boric
     acid works so well that the roach specific use of IGRs is not recommended for most
     homes. They can be useful in situations where large numbers of roaches are present,
     such as in old apartment complexes with heavy infestations. If this is the case, a plan
     of control for the entire building needs to be undertaken by the building managers in
     order to achieve success. 

Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)


     One of the more recent innovations in pest control research has been thet
     development of insect growth regulators (IGRs). These are synthetically reproduced
     mimics of the hormones that regulate various stages of an insect's growth and
     reproduction cycles. Because these hormones are only found in insects, the potential
     for endangering other species is low. 

     Different formulations are available for roaches, fleas, and fire ants. In general, IGRs
     prevent pests from maturing properly so that they never reach reproductive age and
     the colony eventually dies out. All must be used in conjunction with a full treatment
     program of habitat modification and exclusion, and generally in conjunction with the
     least toxic pesticide available in order to maintain control of the existing adult
     population. IGRs will not kill insects, and are also somewhat limited by the migratory
     habits of the target insect. 

     Roach growth regulator: the active ingredient is hydroprene, the trade name is
     Gencor. By controlling the molting process, hydroprene halts development from
     nymph to adult, so roaches never reach reproductive age. Gencor is available in a
     liquid, and has a residual effect of four months. It can only been used indoors as
     ultraviolet light will break down the active ingredients. 

     Flea growth regulator: Precor, containing the active ingredient methoprene. A flea life
     cycle has four stages: egg; larvae; pupae, which is encased in a protective cocoon;
     and adult. Methoprene halts egg laying in adults and stops the development of the
     egg and larvae stages. The pupae is not affected in its cocoon, so other precautions
     must be taken along with the IGR to prevent a second infestation. These include
     vacuuming up the adults, applying diatomaceous earth, and/or spraying with the least
     toxic pesticide available. This product also breaks down upon exposure to ultraviolet
     light, and therefore can only be used indoors. 

     Fire ant growth regulator: Formulated for outdoor use, Logic (also known as
     Award), containing fenoxycarb, is one of the safest and most effective means of
     controlling fire ants. The product is formulated as a bait at a ratio of 1% active
     ingredient to 99% inert ingredients. The inert ingredients are limited to soybean oil,
     expanded corn grit, and trace amounts of a food grade preservative. Fenoxycarb
     causes sterility in the queen and any developing juveniles, causing the mound to die
     out within five to eight weeks. It only needs to be applied once a year, and poses
     little danger to other species. It is toxic to bees and aqueous invertebrates, however,
     so careful guidelines for application need to be followed. For more information on
     the control of fire ants and the use of this product, please refer to our information
     sheet on control of outdoor pests. 

http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/oem/html/rat.html
[OEM-Comprehensive Rodent Initiative]

http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/~schoolipm/tp9.htm
[School IPM: Integrated Pest Management In School]

http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/wildlife/g1106.htm
[Controlling Rats]

NebGuide G92-1105, Controlling House Mice

http://www.metrokc.gov/health/env_hlth/rats.htm
[Unwanted Rats]

http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.home.html

http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7451.html
[Controlling Mosquitoes]


http://www.ent.iastate.edu/List/integrated_pest_management.html
[Links On Integrated Pest Management]

http://pest.cabweb.org/

********************************************************************************************************************
P2'ers:

I'm preparing to share some information on pollution prevention 
techniques, strategies and ideas in relation to vector control (rats, 
mice, roaches, mosquitoes, etc., for local/county health departments' 
directors and others, and I realize I don't know all that much,  
notwithstanding good housekeeping, stoppage, removal of habitat,
food sources, etc.  

Anyone have experience, expertise, case studies, examples, general 
knowledge, or details on P2 tools, alternatives etc. for pesticides 
and vector control?

Sorry, but I just got this assignment and I need some VERY quick help 
no later than the end of this week.  I will appreciate anything you 
have to share.

Thanks!

*******************************************************************************************************************




                     









Art L. Coleman, Jr., Ohio EPA
Lazarus Government Center
122 South Front Street
Columbus, Ohio 43215
Division of Hazardous Waste Management,
Technical Support Unit
Send Mail To:
Ohio EPA
P.O. Box 1049
Columbus, Ohio 43216-1049
art.coleman@epa.state.oh.us
http://www.epa.ohio.gov
http://pages.prodigy.net/lfairban/artcole.htm
(my bookmark "homepage"---> links on mercury,
mercury lamps/devices, computer and computer
equipment, dry-cell batteries, appliances, etc.) 
                    
                            IIIIIII
                             _  _
                         (   O O  )
              __!!!!!_________!!!!!__  
             [___   OHIO  EPA   ___]                    
                              

 



Art L. Coleman, Jr., Ohio EPA
Lazarus Government Center
122 South Front Street
Columbus, Ohio 43215
Division of Hazardous Waste Management,
Technical Support Unit
Send Mail To:
Ohio EPA
P.O. Box 1049
Columbus, Ohio 43216-1049
art.coleman@epa.state.oh.us
http://www.epa.ohio.gov
http://pages.prodigy.net/lfairban/artcole.htm
(my bookmark "homepage"---> links on mercury,
mercury lamps/devices, computer and computer
equipment, dry-cell batteries, appliances, etc.) 
                    
                            IIIIIII
                             _  _
                         (   O O  )
              __!!!!!_________!!!!!__  
             [___   OHIO  EPA   ___]