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Small Business Innovation Research Program 1



This first message is the list of the winners of EPA's FY99 (Phase I) Small
Business Innovation Research Program for the P2 and Clean Technologies portion
of the solicitation (Topic L--see the entire solicitation @
<http://www.epa.gov/ncerqa/sbir>www.epa.gov/ncerqa/sbir). 

Appendix B: Project Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I  FY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY: (Limit to One Page)

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:
Faraday Technology, Inc.
315 Huls Drive,
Clayton, OH 45315
(937) 8367749

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:
A CostCompetitive Functional Trivalent Chromium Plating Process to Replace
Hexavalent
Chromium Plating

TOPIC LETTER (A-O):  L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:
Robert P. Renz, P.E., CEF

(1) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT: (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)

In the program "A CostCompetitive Functional Trivalent Chromium Plating
Process
to Replace Hexavalent Chromium Plating", we proposeto use modulated reverse
current (MRC) electrolysis in conjunction with a reducedcost trivalent
chromium
plating chemistry. The resulting "innovation” will be a reducedcost,
performancebased, functional trivalent chromium plating process to replace
conventional hexavalent chromium plating. The process will be compared to
conventional hexavalent chromium plating for thick, hard, functional coatings
and for costeffectiveness.


(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

The proposed effort will produce a costeffective, environmentally friendly,
performancebased plating process to replace hexavalent chromium plating

Appendix B: Project Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I - FY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY: (Limit to One Page)

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:

Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)
1360 Willow Road, Suite l03
Menlo Park, CA 94025l5l6
(650) 3282228

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:
Recovery of Catalyst Vapors from Foundry Cold Box Core Machines

TOPIC LETTER (AO): L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORIPROJECT MANAGER:
Dr. Atsushi Morisato, Senior Research Chemist

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT:  (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)

Metal casting operations produce air streams containing 0.5 to 5 vol% of
various catalyst vapors. The source of these streams is the exhaust from cold
box core machines. These streams are a serious pollution problem and are
produced at 3,000 U.S. foundries. They are also a significant resource
recovery
opportunity since a large foundry may release catalyst vapors with a potential
annual value of $200-500 thousand. The overall objective of this project is to
develop a membrane process to recover and recycle the catalyst vapors. In
favorable cases, the process can achieve simple payback times from the
value of
the recovered catalyst of one to two years. The focus of the Phase I research
is to develop a suitable membrane for the process and to analyze the technical
and economic feasibility of the process based on the membrane properties
determined by permeation experiments with air/catalyst vapor feed gases.

(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

If successfully developed, the process will be widely applied because current
technology involves destruction of the catalyst vapors at a significant
cost to
plant operators.  Initial users are likely to be foundries operating on a
continuous basis, in which significant amounts of catalyst could be recovered
from a single machine. There are about 400 to 500 such large foundries in the
U.S. and more overseas. The potential market in the U.S. is $90 million in
these larger plants, with an industrywide market of $200300 million.
Appendix B: Project Summary
Us. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I  FY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY: (Limit to One Page)

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:
Gumbs Associates, Inc.
11 Harts Lane
East Brunswick, NJ 08816
(732) 2579049

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:  

Solventless Adhesive Systems

TOPIC LETTER (AO): L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:

Dr. Ronald W. Gumbs

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT: (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)

Adhesives, caulks and sealants contain VOCs. While there is an urgent need to
reduce the volume of solvents in each formulation, complete elimination is
preferred. This proposal seeks to replace VOCs with nonvolatile monomers that
serve as diluents and vehicles in these formulations.
The. proposed project aims to replace VOCs and HAPs in adhesives, caulks and
sealants used in building construction and automotive body assembly
operations.
These 100% solids systems will be formulated and evaluated to demonstrate
feasibility of the concept. The key technical objectives are to screen a large
number of commercially available monomers, formulate monomer/polymer mixtures
in twocomponent adhesives, evaluate the adhesives versus solventbased
commercial products, and optimize the experimental adhesives to meet
specifications for selected applications where'solventborne adhesives are
employed. Viscosity, workingtime, bond strength and cost are critical
parameters.

(II)  ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

It is anticipated that the 100% solids adhesives resulting from the proposed
work will be cost competitive with solventbased adhesives because of the
following reasons: they will exhibit less shrinkage than those containing
water
or solvent; they will possess better thermal and flow resistance than hot
melts; they may be used on heatsensitive substrates; they will be cost
effective because of lower costs of energy, pollution control and processing;
and they will not contain any VOCs and HAPs.

Primary commercial applications are adhesives, caulks and sealers used in
building construction and automotive body assembly operations  Potential
markets are the same as those presently captured by solventbased products. The
entire market for adhesives is large and diverse. In 1996, 12.31 billion
pounds
of adhesives were sold in the U.S. and 40% of this volume was in building
construction. Other potential applications are solventless paints, coatings
and
inks.

Appendix B: Project Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC981221 1
PHASE I FY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY: (Limit to One Page)

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:
Eltron Research, Inc.
5660 Airport Boulevard
Boulder, CO 803012340

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:
Ionic Liquids as Alternative Solvents for Industrial Aikylation Chemistry

TOPIC LETTER (AO): L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVE~GATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:

Michael T. Carter, Sensor/Chemical Systems Manager

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT: (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)

This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address
feasibility of an ambient temperature chloroaluminate ionic liquid as a
catalytic medium for economically important benzene alkylation reactions.
Benzene alkylation represents an extremely important synthetic chemistry, with
products such as styrene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates being used as
feedstocks for polymers and detergents. We will examine ability of the ionic
liquid to catalyze formation of ethyl benzene, cumeme and I dodecylbenzene via
a single batch, homogeneous process. Unique properties of the ionic liquid
will
facilitate product harvesting, reduce catalyst consumption and improve product
purity, all of which will reduce production cost for these important
materials.
Environmental impact of production will be decreased by the ionic liquid,
which
will conserve catalyst and reduce need for solvents.

(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

The proposed research will demonstrate effective use of ambient temperature
ionic liquids as reaction media for important alkylations. We anticipate that
high native acidic catalyst concentration and high reactant solubility will
drive high yield reactions and make more efficient use of reaction volume
while
eliminating volatile organic contaminants. The proposed process will find
commercial application in synthesis of alkylated benzenes. These materials are
used as feedstocks in preparation of styrene and phenol for polymers and in
production of anionic, biodegradable surfactants for detergents.
Appendix B: Project Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I  FY 1999

PROJECT SUMMARY:

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:
CeraMem Corporation
12 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
(718) 899-4495

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:
Solvent Nanofiltration using LowCost Inorganic Membrane Modules

TOPIC LETTER (AO): L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:

Dr. Richard J. Higgins

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT: (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)

This project addresses: (1) development of fully inorganic nanoffitration (NF)
membrane modules that have the attributes of low cost, excellent chemical
resistance in aggressive organic and aqueous media, and high thermal
stability;
and (2) demonstration of the performance attributes of these modules for
organic solvent recovery. These modules will have much lower associated costs
than commercially available inorganic NF membrane modules and will be suitable
for a much broader range of applications than polymeric NF modules.

The overall objective of the Phase I program is to fabricate prototype
membrane
modules with 50cm2  membrane area and demonstrate their separation
capabilities
using simulated process streams. Preliminary work to fabricate modules with
220
cm2 membrane area and high membrane area to module volume ratio will be
conducted as a leadin to subsequent Phase II development of such modules.

(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

If Phase I is successful, a subsequent Phase II program would scale up
fabrication of NF membrane modules to modules having from 1 to ca 10 m2
membrane
area. These pilotscale modules would be demonstrated in longterm trials
(including tests at sites in the field) on solvent recovery applications.
The subject modules would be especially suitable for inprocess recycling of
solvents (including low volatility "green" solvents) used in a wide variety of
applications and could replace distillation as a costeffective purification
method for solvents (e.g., hexane, acetone) that are used in very large
quantities for edible oil processing and for which fugitive emissions are
substantial. In addition, the products would have wide application in the
chemical manufacturing, petrochemical, petroleum production, pharmaceutical,
food processing, and water treatment industries.


Appendix B: Project Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I  FY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY:

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:

Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 061083742
(860) 5289806

TITLE OF PROPOSAL: 

Gas Turbine Engine Performance Monitor for Reduced Emissions

TOPIC LETTER (AO): L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:

James R. Markham, CEO

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable):

Tens of thousands of gas turbine engines are used in the utility electric
power
market (utility companies) and the nonutility electric power market
(industries
of aluminum, chemicals, steel, wood & paper, agriculture, and others), and
thousands of new gas turbine engines are to be installed to accommodate the
worldwide increase in power needs over the next few years. Numerous pollutants
are released into the atmosphere each year in the exhaust of these engines.
This Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative
emissions/performance & health monitor for improved tuning control of gas
turbine engines. The insitu exhaust sensor will: 1) speciate and quantitate
gas
phase chemical species; 2) measure gas phase temperatures; and 3) monitor for
particulate loading and composition. The sensor will provide realtime
information for facilitated tuning of engines as it monitors for environmental
emissions levels, engine performance, and rapid malfunction detection in
advance of catastrophic engine failures. The engine tuning control afforded by
the sensor will reduce pollutants released into the atmosphere by tens of
thousands of tons per year. A field test of the Phase I prototype is
planned at
an engine test cell of a major engine manufacturer.



(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

Phases I and II of this project will result in an onengine product that will
benefit the environment as well as turbine engine manufacturers and engine
endusers. Improved engine emissions/health & performance monitors are desired
by the manufacturers of advanced turbine engines to facilitate test programs
and bring engines to production sooner. Engine endusers also desire such
monitors to indicate optimum performance as well as provide early warning in
advance of catastrophic engine failure. Significant savings are realized in
fuel consumption, engine replacement parts, power generation downtime, and
labor costs associated with repairs. Engine manufacturers project upwards of
500 advanced stationary turbine engine installations will be realized annually
beginning in the year 2001 (end of Phase II of this project), and as stated
above, tens of thousands of traditional gas turbine engines are already in
service. The served available market is worth pursuing from a business
standpoint, and the proposing firm has established a working relationship with
major engine manufacturers that enhances the opportuni~ for commercial
success.
A business concerned with providing health/performance monitors for test stand
engines and installed production engines is planned.

Appendix B: Project Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I  FY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY: (Limit to One Page)

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:
MicroCoating Technologies, Inc.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee. GA 30341
7704578400

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:
Combustion CVD:  A Clean Alternative to Chromium Electroplating

TOPIC LETTER (AO):  L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:

Michelle Hendrick, Research Scientist

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)
The innovative, patented Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD)
process is
a, clean, dry, pollution free, open atmosphere (nonvacuum) thin film process
with potential for low cost manufacture of coatings with quality equal or
superior to chromium electroplated coatings. Consequently, CCVD has potential
to displace electroplating in many industrial applications, thus eliminating
major sources of water pollution. In Phase I, MicroCoating Technologies will
demonstrate proofofconcept by developing and testing sample coatings on steel
substrates with anticorrosion and antiwear properties suitable for
substitution
for hard chrome plated coatings. These coatings will be tested for specific
applications by our industrial collaborators in the printing press and
automotive industries. Research Triangle Park, an independent environmental
research laboratory, will complete an environmental audit of the CCVD process
in order to certify that it is pollutionfree. The project will generate the
process data, economic analyses, environmental analyses, and coating
performance data needed to verify that CCVD is a costeffective clean
manufacturing technology that can replace hard chromium electroplating.
Success
in Phase I will lay a solid groundwork for a Phase II effort in which we will
scaleup and automate the CCVD process to prepare for Phase III high volume low
cost, commercial production.





(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

The EPA and industry recognize the need to develop clean processes as
alternatives to chromium electroplating, the number one source of water
pollution nationwide. Applications include automotive components and trim,
industrial rollers, plastic extrusion screws, appliances, fixtures and
aerospace parts. It is anticipated that SI billion in markets for alternative
coating technologies will emerge in the next ten years. MCT already has one
industrial partner in the printing press industry who will participate in this
Phase I effort. MCT is also recruiting manufacturing partners in the
automotive
and aerospace industries. The proposed SBIR effort will enable MCT to build on
its past success with corrosionresistant coatings in order to develop coatings
with better wearresistance as needed for hard chrome replacement applications.
MCT has had considerable past success in developing and commercializing SBIR
technology, as recognized by its receipt in 1998 of NSF's prestigious Tibbets
Award.



Appendix B: Project Summary

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC9812211
PHASE I  FY 99
PROJECT SUMMARY

FIRM NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:
GT Equipment Technologies Inc.
472 Amherst Stree
Nashua, NH 03063
Tel: (603)8835200: Fax: (603)5956993:
email: info~~eguiDment.com:
URL: <http://www.gteguinment.com/>www.gteguinment.com

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:

Precision Cleaning/Sub-micron Level Cleaning with Liquid/Supercritical CO2
Technology 

TOPIC LETTER: L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:
Ijaz H. Jafri. Projects Leader

(I) TECHNICAL ABSTRACT:

This SBIR Phase I project is aimed at developing a viable supercritical carbon
dioxide (SCCO2) based technology for semiconductor and MEMS wafer cleaning and
drying. The proposed technology will replace the wet processing by using CO2
based processing techniques. The current cleaning techniques used in standard
semiconductor and MEMS fabrication lines rely on the use of chemicals that are
toxic, hazardous and environmentally nonfriendly. These techniques use
tremendous amounts of water, which is contaminate.  Recent studies
conducted by
Los Alamos National Laboratory have indicated that photoresist removal is
possible when supercritical CO2 is used in combination with a cosolvent.  GTi
has manufactured a proven (patent pending) prototype supercritical CO2 system
for wafer drying/cleaning. In order to make pioneering contributions to the  
based wafer processing technology, further research and development is
crucial.
This project will investigate the feasibility of CO2 based system by
performing
experiments on particulate removal from silicon wafer, modeling of dynamics of
flow inside the pressure chamber, and characterization of processed wafer.
Once
successful results are achieved, prelintinasy design of the next generation
CO2
based waferprocessing station will be prepared, with detailed engineering,
manufacturing and testing in Phase II, leading to commercialization in Phase
III.

(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS:

This project is aimed at semiconductor and MEMS industries. Staying ahead in
this high dividend market and technology is very crucial for US economy. Wafer
cleaning is an essential process in semiconductor manufacturing A typical
wafer
goes 16 - 40 times through a cleaning process, and another 4  16 times for
photoresist stripping. Particulate contamination of the wafer during these
process steps is always an issue. The process such as photoresist stripping
involves the use of separate systems. If successfully developed, the proposed
technology will have the capability of replacing wafer cleaning stations (that
typically use toxic chemicals and substances) which is a $2 billion projected
(1999) market. Also the technology will have the capability to reduce clean
room space because more then one processes can be achieved in a single system.
Thus the proposed technology has tremendous commercial potential in a market
that has a projected sales of over $161 billions before the tum of the
century.


Appendix B: Projed Summary
U.S. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY
SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROG;RAM
SOLICITATION NUMBER PRNC98-12211
PHASE IFY 99

PROJECT SUMMARY: (Limit to One Page)

FIRM NAME ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER:

Thermal Spray Technologies, Inc.
515 Progress Way
Sun Prairie, WI 53590
Telephone (608) 8252772; Fax (608) 8252737

TITLE OF PROPOSAL:

Development of Thermal Spray Circuit Board (TSCB) Technology to Replace
Electroplating and "Print and Etch" Circuit Board Fabrication Techniques.

TOPIC LETTER (AO): L

NAME AND TITLE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER:

William I Lenling, Vice President/Materials Engineer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT. (Limited to 200 words; Must be Publishable)
Due to the pollution concerns associated with led circuit board fabrication
there exists an enormous incentive, both environmental and economical, to
replace electroplating with a more environmentally-friendly, yet cost
effective
way to deposit copper onto polymeric substrates. Thermal Spray Technologies of
Sun Prairie, WI, has developed a proprietary thermal spray process that
enables
copper traces to be directly deposited quickly and economically onto a circuit
board. This environmentally-friendly process conserves energy, greatly reduces
water consumption, eliminates nearly all process chemicals, and possesses the
ability to recycle all copper material.  However, the electrical
resistivity of
the thermalsprayed copper is higher than that of copper foils used in
conventional circuit boards, a fact that limits the applicability of the
thermal spray process. The high resistivity originates from copper oxides that
were created during deposition. Incremental improvements in thermal spray
coting properties by way of reduced oxide levels will allow inroads into the
printed circuit board market and will open up new applications inaccessible to
existing circuit board technology. An investigation is proposed to provide
further insight into possible remedies of the detrimental coating oxide
formation. The outcome of the research would be the development of an
environmentally friendly process that would inevitably replace nearly all
"print and etch" and electroplating processes currently used by the printed
circuit board industry.

(II) ANTICIPATED RESULTS/POTENTAIL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limited to 200
words; Must be Publishable):

TST produces many types of electronic coatings (dielectric, solderable, and
electrically conductive coatings) for customers in several major industries
including the telecommunications, computer, automotive, and aerospace
industries. Using TST's current customer base, the TSCB technology will first
prove itself in a variety of operating conditions and then begin to grow into
other fields where electronics are used. Due to their relative simplicity TST
will first focus production efforts on single sided and double sided TSCBs.
There would most likely be an interim period where the TSCB technology
would be
tesed by end users in the electronics community and for that production period
TSCBs would most likely be produced at TST. Once the TSCB technology became an
accepted circuit board process the entire electronic packaging industry would
drastically and beneficially be changed.  In essence, due to the large volumes
of circuit boards produced annually, licensing of the TSCB technology would
most likely occur. With better understanding of the TSCB technology, other
circuit board applications will be developed including multilayer and hybrid
circuit boards.
------------------------------
Juna Z. Snow
List Manager
listman@wmrc.uiuc.edu
IL. Waste Management 
& Research Center
217.333.8945