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Re: P2 for Smelters, Batteries, Concrete?

Extensive links for P2 in metal smelters (ferrous and non-ferrous) can be
found at


many good tech/EMS manuals are linked there, plus many trade assns

sorry I don't have anything for batteries, but in concrete the number of
lowcost P2 options is very small; everything they do is big.  Some key P2
tricks are using chipped tires as fuel (they do this here in Seattle), and
switching to dry process kilns - wet process is the old tech.  In cement,
any fugitive dust is 100% lost product, so smart cement guys have the
cleanest plants you will see. Some other thoughts:  cement plants often have
associated quarries and big transport systems, so mining and vehicle P2 are
helpful.  Cement bags are good targets for designs improvements to enhance
durability and recyclability.  Most of the attention to cement seems to come
from the energy efficiency folks; variable-speed motors, inline process
control, optimization of electrostatic precipitators.  Energy is the biggest
cost for cement so relate everything P2 to improved energy outcomes and you
will have a receptive audience.

Burt Hamner