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Re: refineries

There are two basic alkylation processes -- HF and H2SO4 -- with the latter
the acid can be recycled into new sulfuric acid, so there is a little less
pollution involved.  Also the risks of accidental release and the
consequences thereof are both greater with HF.

Also look carefully at the control of the generation of API separator
sludge.  In most refineries, the effort is focused on keeping the oil away
from soil particles.  However, we discovered that the limiting factor is the
soil, since the water always has free oil.  Methods to control erosion, such
as grass, use of french drains, rather than open ones, hay bales around
drains, etc., will reduce the amount of soil entering the drains and
therefore getting mixed with oil.  I did a major study of an old refinery
and recommended grass -- they hired an agronomist to get things growing!
And it really works.

Ralph E. Cooper, Ph.D., J.D.
111 Soledad, Suite 2000
San Antonio, TX 78205
----- Original Message -----
From: "Dana Codell" <danacode@engr.colostate.edu>
To: <p2tech@great-lakes.net>
Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2001 4:21 PM
Subject: refineries

> I will be visiting two oil refineries next week to conduct energy
> efficiency and pollution prevention assessments.  As of yet, I do not
> know a lot about the equipment and practices involved in the refining
> process.  Any information regarding potential improvements that can be
> made in the process, or ideas on what I should look for during the
> assessments (P2 and E2 opportunities) would be a great help.
> Thanks,
> Dana Codell
> Industrial Assessment Center
> Colorado State University