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RE: water usage per gallon of oil refined



	Dear Sherry

	Water consumption from a petroleum refinery ranges based on  refinery configuration (hydroskimming, medium , complex and deep conversion) and the degree of water consumption integration.

World Bank reference values varies form 3 m3/Tm of crude oil processed to 0,5 m3/Tm of crude oil processed. Former values come from a complex refinery without water consumption integration and later ones from a modern and water consumption integrated  refinery.

Main consumers in the refinery are:
- Desalter
- Steam generation as Boiler feed water:  one part can be recovered as clean condensate and remaining part can´t, because is used as steam injected to the processed being recovered as sour water
- Cooling water: generally are closed systems so you only need to have a small make up a quantity equal to blowndown + windage

Techniques used to reduce  water consumption  are:
- Use  effluent from a process as make up to another process with or without treatment stage
- Install upgrading units   to polish water form wastewater treatment plants.
- Consider to segregate drainages between  non contaminated, accidentally contaminated and contaminated

Please feel free to ask me for further details or values.  I have prepared a Ph D about environmental techniques for petroleum refineries.


Best regards

Jose-Luis Martinez


 -----Mensaje original-----
De: 	sbd@oznet.ksu.edu [mailto:sbd@oznet.ksu.edu] 
Enviado el:	viernes, 16 de mayo de 2003 23:10
Para:	P2tech@great-lakes.net
Asunto:	water usage per gallon of oil refined

Tod,
I can't answer your question about water usage/consumption in 
the processing of crude oil. However, I will send your request to 
a technical group to see if someone in my field does know.
I would imagine it might be a little hard to get a "real" number 
associated with this, though. Water is used for cooling 
equipment such as pumps, compressors, and overhead heat 
exchangers and it is actually used in the process for desalting the 
crude before it gets to the heaters and distillation towers. If the 
crude is really "sour" (has lots of contaminants such as chlorides 
and sulfides, among others) it may require much more water to 
"clean" the incoming crude. In addition, steam is used as a 
driver for many pumps and compressors. And most refineries 
have 2 or more "ponds" where oily waters from surface washing 
are "cleaned" before being discharged. This involves the oil and 
other organics being broken down by specific micro-organisms. 
Then, you also have to consider that the raw crude coming in 
may have lot's of water entrained in it. The amount would be 
such a variable number, I wouldn't think it could be used for 
even a general statement about water consumption by the 
refining process. You may want to visit this website for a very 
simplified explanation of the oil-refining process:
http://science.howstuffworks.com/oil-refining.htm

I will forward any/all responses from our listserve to you as 
soon as I get them.
Good luck,
 Sherry J. Davis, CHMM
Industrial P2 Specialist
133 Ward Hall,KSU
Manhattan, KS  66506-2508
Fax: 785-532-6952
Phone: 1-800-578-8898
sbd@ksu.edu


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