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RE: Preventive Maintenance For Lamps

Rick raises an interesting point.  I'd like to point out that it's not just fluorescent tubes we're talking about.  I recall an instance  many ~14 years ago when the condo manager where we stayed in Hawaii let us know that on one day of our stay  the maintenance personnel would be changing out the ceiling fan as part of a planned maintenance program for the entire complex.  Not just the lamps, but the entire fan.  He explained the rationale as the one of cost savings tied to the batch changeout at the proximate end of useful life, just as has been described for the lamps in this series of emails.

seems like there's an opportunity there somewhere.  the "embarrassment" of riches and excess continues, I guess.

Perhaps something like http://www.freecycle.org/  - as a community service would make sense?  



Richard Yoder, PE
Director, P2ric.org
University of Nebraska at Omaha
6001 Dodge Street, RH308
Omaha, NE 68182
vox: 402-554-6257
fax: 402-554-6260



P2RIC, the Pollution Prevention
Regional Information Center, is
a proud member of the Pollution Prevention
Resource Exchange, P2Rx.org.

"Reibstein, Rick (ENV)" <Rick.Reibstein@state.ma.us>
Sent by: owner-p2tech@great-lakes.net

08/31/2004 12:32 PM

Please respond to
"Reibstein, Rick (ENV)" <Rick.Reibstein@state.ma.us>

"Gary Miller" <gmiller@wmrc.uiuc.edu>, "Illig, Richard" <rillig@state.pa.us>, "Kennedy, Judith C." <jken461@ecy.wa.gov>, <P2tech@great-lakes.net>
"Althoff, David" <dalthoff@state.pa.us>
RE: Preventive Maintenance For Lamps

In all this discussion about how it can be economical to change out still-functioning bulbs, which I am sure is true, might there be something we can do with those still-functioning bulbs?  Why not store them somewhere and use them in easily-accessed locations, where there is no critical problem about a loss of function, and where this is no particular labor saving in changing them out with all the others?  I can see some of them being taken from the high ceiling you have to get out a big ladder to deal with, when it makes sense to change out everything, and then being used in the office hallway for a few more months, where it's no big deal to reach up and change them out one at a time.  Why don't we suggest that companies let employees take them home if they want?  There must be any number of old-age home options for bulbs to live out their remaining time happily.  
-----Original Message-----
Gary Miller [mailto:gmiller@wmrc.uiuc.edu]
Tuesday, August 31, 2004 11:08 AM
Illig, Richard; Kennedy, Judith C.; P2tech@great-lakes.net
Althoff, David
RE: Preventive Maintenance For Lamps

Jeri Knaus from the Illinois Waste Management and Research Center contributes the following on this topic:

In response to Judy Kennedy's question regarding Lighting

I just read "Lighting Upgrades - A guide for Facility Managers" second
edition, written by Damon Wood, CLEP, LC. Mr. Wood was previously
responsible for the EPA Green Lights program. There is an entire
chapter devoted to lighting maintenance, some very technical, including
calculating lamp lumen depreciation and luminaire dirt depreciation
creating the light loss factor. He also talks about saving money
through improved maintenance.

Here are a couple of excepts from the chapter that might be helpful:

"...group maintenance...labor costs associated with fixture relamping
and cleaning can be cut by over 70 percent; expense of lamp purchases
can be reduced through fewer, higher volume transactions. ...improved
maintenance practices...more lighting value per dollar expended."

"Many maintenance managers are hesitant to replace lamps that are still
operating. But after comparing the average annual cost of sporadic spot
maintenance to that of group maintenance (i.e. relamping/cleaning) many
have decided to switch to a group maintenance strategy."

"To determine the optimal time to group relamp, refer to the lamp's
mortality curve (there is a table in the book) which represents the
cumulative percentage of lamp failures that occur over time. ...the
rate of fluorescent lamp failures becomes significant at approximately
70 percent of rated life, HID relamping intervals are typically
scheduled between 60 and 70 percent of rated lamp life, depending on the
cost of spot-relamping failures that inevitably occur before group
relamping is performed."

Hope this is helpful. This book can be found at

http://www.fairmontpress.com/store/detail.cfm?id=188&itemid=844 and at

At 12:53 PM 8/30/2004, Illig, Richard wrote:


The concept of changing out all lamps at the same time can be economical pending actual circumstances.  Some items to consider are:
     Nearly all lamps have a loss of output over time.  The largest drop in output typically occurs during the last few thousand hours of lamp life.  If all lamps were installed at the same time, the thinking is that once several lamps burnout that the rest of the lamps are already functioning at or near reduced output levels and are also due to be changed.  Inexpensive lamps – like fluorescent – help make this case.
     If your staff needs to rent a lift to access lamps in high-bay areas, rent may be reduced doing all lamps rather than renting a unit several times yearly.
     Maintenance costs can be a large part of lamp replacement.  If you consider hauling a ladder out every time a few lamps burnout the time and effort adds up.  It can simply be more efficient labor-wise.  One LARGE benefit of LED or induction lighting is the exceptionally long life – 25+ years and ~10 years, respectively - and reduced maintenance costs.
     If your business has scheduled shut-downs for maintenance, it may be easier to change out all lamps at that time rather than when actively producing.  Food processing operations or anyone operating 24/7 might be an example where added care may be needed changing out lamps.  Commercial operations may be another example of where public perception makes it more appealing to get the job done rather than have a ceiling dotted with burnt out lamps.  Remember, although the lamp is burned-out the ballast continues to operate.  Like idling your car engine…zero miles per gallon.

Unfortunately, I have no case studies on the topic.  Check with a lighting professional.  A good one should be able to paint a much clearer picture.  Ric


-----Original Message-----
owner-p2tech@great-lakes.net [
mailto:owner-p2tech@great-lakes.net]On Behalf Of Kennedy, Judith C.
Monday, August 30, 2004 12:34 PM
Preventive Maintenance For Lamps

Can anyone provide me with some information on preventive maintenance programs for commercial/industrial lighting, where all lamps are periodically changed at the same time, whether they need it or not?  This is supposed to save much money.  How does one determine the frequency of change-out?  How does one estimate the potential savings?  Are there any good case studies out there?  I would appreciate any information or leads you might have.

Judy Kennedy

Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program
Washington State Department of Ecology
P.O.Box 47775
Olympia, WA  98504-7775
Phone (360) 407-6385
Fax  (360) 407-6305
Email:  jken461@ecy.wa.gov