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SG-W:/ Sprawl

                   A table from an E-mail
      The following table is from an Email from Murray Duffin. Note the radical decrease in energy consumption as cities grow denser. Hong Kong is the most vertical city and its dwellers consume the least energy. Note the huge difference between Houston, the only American city and all the others. One MJ=one million Joules=947.8 btus. Ha is hectare or about 2.47 acres. Inhab means inhabitants, trans means transportation and GDP means Gross Domestic Product.
                         Kermit Schlansker
                         Urban Travel Energy
     The following table is from a study entitled "Urban Growth vs
 Sustainable Mobility" By the Sustainable Development Working Group of the International association of Public Transport, published
in "Sustainable Development International", Summer 2003. The figures are for personal transport, and do not include goods and
     I have personally lived in Hong Kong, Paris, and London, and have frequently visited Tokyo, Munich and Houston. I can attest that for the urban dweller, Houston is the least liveable of these cities, and Hong Kong is not bad. Hong Kong is by far the most vertical. Overall I would prefer Paris.

 City         PUBLIC TRANS       % OF GDP     MJ/ INHAB
 Houston            9         5               14.1        86,000
 Sydney            19       25              11.0        30,000
 London            59        51               7.1        14,500
 Paris               48        56               6.7        15,500
 Munich            56         60              5.8        17,500
 Tokyo              88         68              5.0        11,500
 Hong Kong     320         82              5.0         6500           
                               Murray Duffin