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Goal of UWM habitat study is to help restore fisheries in river
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (6/25)
Led by University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's School of Freshwater Sciences, a habitat study's goal is to identify habitat that supports estuary fish and recommend strategies to protect, encourage and connect these habitats in harbor revitalization and habitat restoration plans.

Funding milestone reached for Aquatic Research Lab expansion
The Sault Ste. Marie Evening News (6/13)
Both houses of Michiganís legislature have approved nearly $9 million in funding for an expansion of Lake Superior State Universityís successful Aquatic Research Lab (ARL).

Students dive, document Sheboygan shipwreck
Sheboygan Press (6/13)
A team of budding nautical archaeologists from East Carolina University dove below the waves of Lake Michigan to discover what treasures lay hidden on the sandy bottom.

Island living and working at Thousand Islands Biological Station in Clayton
The Syracuse Post-Standard (6/8)
Many apply, but few are chosen for the limited number of scientific research positions each year at the Thousand Islands Biological Station (TIBS). The SUNY ESF research facility is located on Governor's Island in the St. Lawrence River in Clayton, NY.

Gems emerge in eel study
The Cornwall Standard Freeholder (5/31)
In Ontario, an ongoing study of American eel habitat on the St. Lawrence River has a preeminent biology professor and masters student charting some uncharted waters in fisheries research.

Lake Superior State celebrating 30 years of salmon releases
The Associated Press (5/29)
In Michigan, the Aquatic Research Laboratory at Lake Superior State University is celebrating three decades of raising and releasing Atlantic salmon in the St. Marys River.

TEACH Calendar of Events
What's going on in your neighborhood this month? Meet other people and learn together at recreational and educational events! Our new dynamic calendar is updated daily with current educational events.
Great Lakes native flora

table of contents
What is flora?
Brief floral history of the Great Lakes basin
The importance of native landscaping
Native plant species of the Great Lakes region
Some resources for starting your own native plant garden
Native flora fun facts!
Take a quiz!
References

What is flora?

Click for larger
image. Flora was once known as the Roman goddess of flowers, though today we use the term to refer to plant life, including trees. We'll be focusing on vascular plants, which have specialized supporting and water-conducting tissue called xylem and phloem, and typically possess roots, stems and leaves. Nonvascular plants, such as mosses, lack an internal conducting system for water and nutrients, so they depend on their immediate surroundings for moisture.

To be considered a plant, an organism must possess certain characteristics: photosynthesis, cellulose, stationary existence and lack a nervous system.

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants transform energy from the sun into the energy they need to survive. Through photosynthesis, plants are able to convert water, carbon dioxide and minerals into oxygen and energy. Without photosynthesis, there would be little food or other organic matter on Earth; the air would be full of carbon dioxide; and most organisms, including humans, would disappear.

Click for larger image. Cellulose is the basic structural component of plant cell walls, making them rigid and "boxed" shaped. Enabling the leaves and stems of a plant to stand up straight is an important function of cellulose. Plants also lack the means to move on their own as well as a nervous system. The nervous system is a group of organized cells that allow an organism to respond to sensory impulses.

Vascular plants are classified as either gymnosperms or angiosperms. Gymnosperms, meaning "naked seed," have an exposed seed, which can also include a pinecone. Softwood trees, such as conifers, are examples of gymnosperms. Angiosperms, meaning "hidden seed," include 80 percent of the Earth's plants, including all flowering plants. The seeds of angiosperms are enclosed within fruits, often called ovaries. In addition to flowering plants, hardwood trees, such as oak, maple, hickory, birch and poplar, are classified as angiosperms.

Graphics: snow trillium (credit: USDA PLANTS database); xylem and phloem model (credit: Britannica.com)

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